Department of

BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING*Attention, since 1/9/2019 the website of the Department is:** www.bme.uniwa.gr/en/*

Education

Course descriptionsAnalog Electronics

Low frequency amplifiers. High frequency amplifiers. Feedback. Operational amplifiers. Non linearity of operational amplifiers. Analysis of integrated circuits with operational amplifiers. Oscillators (linear and non-linear). Voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs). Phase-locked loop (PLL) circuits. Multi-vibrators. Function generators.

Anatomy

Tissues, organs and systems. Morphology of basic organs and systems. Bone structure, joints, respiratory system, circulatory system, digestive system, urinary and reproductive system. Comparative study of basic organs and systems based on medical imaging methods

Applied Mathematics

Multi variable calculus: Definition. Graphs. Basic properties. Limit. Continuity. Basic theorems. Partial derivatives. Total differential. Integration. Introduction to differential equations: 1st order differential equations: homogeneous, complete, linear. 2nd order differential equations: with constant coefficients, special forms. Linear systems of differential equations. Laplace transformation. Fourier series and integral. Vector differential calculus: scalar and vector fields. Definition and computation of derivatives of single variable and multi-variable vector functions. Laplace operators. Differential equations with partial derivatives. Contour and surface integrals: Definitions, types, properties. Theorems of Green, Stokes and Gauss. Applications in Maxwell equations. Errors in numerical computations. Approximation methods. Numerical differentiation and integration. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations (ODE's).

Automatic Control Systems and Bioautomations

History and review of automatic control systems. Principles of control without and with feedback. Laplace transform. Mathematical models of natural/physiological systems. Transfer functions. Block diagrams and algebra of block diagrams as applied to control systems. Characteristics of control systems. System sensitivity measures and classification of feedback systems. Time response and stability theory. Root locus. Applications of automatic control to biomedical systems. Design and development of basic control circuits. Design and development of analog PID controller. Use of integrated PID for controlling flow, pressure, and temperature.

Automation and Control Mechanisms in Medical Equipment

1. Hydraulic systems. Introduction, physics of hydraulics and fluids. Efficiency, vibrations and operation under pressure, hydraulic pumps, mechanisms of cylinders and valves, hydraulic instrumentation for pressure transmission, examples of medical instrumentation.

2. Pneumatic automation systems. Production of pressurized air, distribution of pressurized air, mechanisms of pneumatic systems, application in biomedical instrumentation.

3. Electrical automations. Introduction in electrical control. Basic electrical control. Relays operation principles, introduction in digital control. Electric automation and control components, basic relay and programming language controllers (PLC) circuits. Examples in biomedical applications.

Biochemistry

Chemistry of carbon, Hydrocarbons (saturated and non-saturated, isomers), Alcohols Fenoles and Ethers, Ketones and Aldehydes, Acids and Esters, Amines and Amides, Carbohydrates (molar structure, monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, properties, Stereoisomerism), Lipids (Fatty Acid and Esters, Hormones and Drugs), Proteins, Enzymes (Generally about Amino Acids and Peptides, properties, protein structure, protein classes, Stereoisomerism, Proteins and their metabolism, Enzymes, enzyme-kinetics and enzymatic-activity, Applications in clinical diagnosis), Nucleic Acids (Genes and Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics etc. an overview), Nutrition Trace-elements and Vitamins, Metabolism (Glucolysis, Respiration and Oxidative Phosphorylation (Krebs Cycle), Co-Enzymes and Bioenergetics).

Biology - Physiology

Principles of Cellular Organization. Principles of Molecular Organization. The plasma membrane. Expression and regulation of genetic information. Cancer cells. Basic principles of Cell function. Body tissues. Blood - Immune system Cardiovascular System. Respiratory System. Neuromuscular system. Digestive system. Reproductive System. Introduction on mathematical and computational methods for modeling dynamic processes (eg. Laplace transforms, differential equations, principles of linear control systems, principles of conservation), and application to basic biological and physiological systems. Methods for recording parameters important systems. Design and construction of simple mechanical models.

Biomedical Technology I

Introduction to electrodiagnostic technology: Ionic current phenomena in cells. Electrodes for biosignal acquisition. Instrumentation amplifiers for medical applications.Electrical biosignal acquisition systems: Electrocardiograph(ECG): electrocardiographic leads, cardiac vector, technical implementations of ECGs. Special ECG systems: cardiotachometer, Intensive care unit ECG systems, Holter ECG, fetal ECG. Electroencephalograph (EEG): historical review, function and characteristics of EEG, Brain Evoked Potentials. Electromyograph (EMG): technical characteristics of EMG, electroneurography, soft-muscle EMG. Electro-opthamlomograph (EOG). Electroretinograph (ERG). Biotransducers: Thermoelectric (thermistors, thermocouples), Electromechanical (resistor-based, capacitance-based, inductance-based, piezoelectric, Hall effect transducers), Photoelectric (phototubes, photoresistors, photodiodes, phototransistors). Measuring of non-electric biosignals: systems and equipment used to measure the function of the respiratory system, the circulatory system, human body sound measurement systems (phonocardiography), radiometric systems.

Biomedical Technology II

A. General purpose equipment: Electronic Balance, Temperature measurement transducers, Optical microscopy, Electron microscopy, Centrifuge.

B. Electrochemical measurements equipment: Ion selective electrodes, Gas electrodes, Biocatalytic membrane electrodes, Biosensors, Potentiometric ion concentration measurement, Conductivity.

C. Optical measurements equipment: Physical principles and geometrical optics, radiation sources, monochromators and detectors for visible ultraviolet and infrared radiation, UV, VIS and IR absorption spectrophotometers, Atomic emission and absorption, fluorescence and phosphorescence spectrometers.

D. Chromatographic separation equipment: Principles of chromatography, Gas, liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography equipment.

E. Elisa immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) equipment.

F. Electrophoresis equipment.

Biomedical Technology III

1. Systems Monitoring various vital functions.
- Electrical phenomena in the human body and Electrocardiography.
- Other types of bioelectric Signals. Biotransducers.
- Incubators and Neonatal Monitoring Systems.
- ICU/CCU/OP/ED Patient Monitoring Systems.
- Systems analyzing the lung function.

2. Systems for the Support and/or the Substitution vital functions.
- Systems Supporting Respiration (Ventilation, Spirometry etc.).
- Anesthesia-machine Technology and related Devices.
- Defibrillation systems and Pacemakers.
- Electrosurgical Systems and Hyperthermia systems.
- LASER based Surgical Systems.
- Surgical Instruments, Endoscopic & Micro-Surgery Systems, da Vinci OPS.
- Electrical Equipment Safety in the ICU/CCU/OP/ED.
- Home-care related vital functions Support Systems.

3. In vitro diagnostic Technology coverage of the ICU/CCU/OP/ED patient .
- Spectroscopic and Fluorecence Techniques and Detection methods,
- Atomic Emmission and Absorption Spectrometry.
- Separation techniques (Mass Spectrometry, Liquid Chromatography, HPLC, Gas Chromatography, Gel and Capillary Electrophoresis).
- Blood Gas Analyzers and PoCT.
- Coagulation disorders identification technology.
- Cell counters (Coulter, LASER), Flow Cytometry Systems.
- Optical, Digital, Electronic Microscopy & emerging Techniques.
- Immunoassay Methods (RIA, ELISA, LIA, IFA, PIF etc.).
- Molecular Biology Methods (PCR, TMA, NGS etc.).
- Emerging Techniques (micro-arrays, nano-structures, stem-cells etc.).

4. Industrial Property Rights and Innovation in Biomedical Technology.

Chemistry

Basic theoretical concepts relating to the periodic table of elements, chemical bonds, thermochemistry, physical states of matter and their properties, solutions and their properties, chemical kinetics, ionic equilibrium and basic principles and applications of Electrochemistry (Electrochemical cells).

Computational Data Analysis in Medical and Biological Data

Computational data analysis in medicine and biology: Biomedical data distributions. Quantitative descriptors. Hypothesis testing. Correlation, Regression. Fitting control algorithms. Analysis of variables. Non-parametric tests independent if distribution. Clinical validity indices. Receiving Operating Characteristic curve.

Computer Aided Diagnosis: Classification and clustering algorithms. Computation of biomedical features (statistical, morphological, textural). Optimum feature selection methods. Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems design. Existing CAD systems in medicine and biology.

Computer Programming

Computer programming in general; basics in algorithms; programming languages; programming basics; input-output commands; decision making and loops; arithmetic matrices; character arrays; 2D and 3D graphs; digital images handling; structures; functions; text and binary files; applications.

Control Mechanisms of Medical Systems

Hydraulic automation systems: Introduction, physics of hydraulic systems, hydraulic fluids. Losses Pressure Vibrations. Pumps, motors, valves, cylinders. Examples of hydraulic systems in medical systems. Pneumatic automation systems: Introduction, physics of pneumatic systems. Production and distribution of compressed air. Components of pneumatic systems. Examples of pneumatic systems in medical systems. Electrical automation: Introduction to control theory. Programmable elements. Applications in medical systems

Design and manufacturing of electromechanical systems I: Mechanical design, Construction technologies and theory of constructions I

Part I: Mechanical Design I. Basic rules and instruments, projection methods, dimensioning, mechanical parts, sections. Software for mechanical design (cad), file management, coordinate system, design levels, adjustment and design aids, symbols, templates. Part II: Introduction to construction technologies. Measurements and units, basic operation of machine tools (cutting tools, lathes, drilling machine, milling machine, planer, smoothing machine), tolerances. Part III: Basic methods in manufacturing I. Manufacturing rules, tolerance behavior calculations, manufacturing materials, tolerances, joining/fitting, connections (nails, screws, welding, chock/wedges, spring, joints/connectors, pins, rods).

Design and manufacturing of electromechanical systems II: Electrical and electronic design, Construction technologies and theory of constructions II

Part I: Electrical and electronic design: Electrical design, symbols (lines, switches, electrical control panels, relays, electronic symbols), design of electrical machines, design of electrical facilities, methods for circuit printing, design of complex machines, installation design. Part II: Basic methods in manufacturing II: General principles in rotational movement, shafts-axis-elastic shafts, rolling and sliding bearings, seals, lubrication, clutches, joints, gears, chains, belts, hydraulic rotation movement transfer.

Digital Electronics

This course covers the basic tools for designing digital circuits as well as their applications. First, it covers combinational circuits then synchronous sequential circuits with a clock and then asynchronous circuits. Finally, it covers integrated circuits which are used in applications. Binary systems: binary numbers, base conversions, hexadecimal numbers. Binary codes. Boole algebra and logical gates: basic definitions. Axiomatic definition of Boolean algebra. Boolean functions. Digital Logical gates. Simplification of Boolean functions. Maps with 2 to 6 variables. Combinatorial logic. Adders, substractors, Encoders and Decoders. Code converters. Comparators. Multiplexers. Read-only memories (ROMs). Programmable Logic Array (PLA). Synchronous sequential circuits: Flip - Flops. Synchronous sequential circuits analysis and design. Buffers, counters and memory units. Random-Access Memories (RAM). Error-correction codes. Asynchronous sequential circuits: analysis and design. Timing issues. Implementation of Control. Implementation with Multiplexers. Implementation with PLA. Integrated circuits: introduction. Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) circuits.

Electric Circuits and Measurements in Biomedical Engineering

Static electric charges, Coulomb's Law, electric field intensity, Faraday cage, applications in medical instrumentation. Electric current. Electrical sources. Connection of sources. Electrical components. Electrolysis, Applications to Medical Instruments Electrical resistance. Electrical conductivity. Specific electrical resistance. Specific electric conductivity. Alteration with temperature. Superconductivity Applications to Medical Instruments. Electric circuit. Ideal and real sources. Open and closed circuit. Kirchof's Law. Applications in Medical instruments and examples. Voltmeter-Amperometer, operating principles of connections. Bias (ODR), voltage drop, nominal voltage, applied voltage. Open circuit, short circuit, grounding and protective devices for medical instruments. Human body resistance. Electric power. Electricity. Addition of resistances and conductances. Connection in series and parallel. Mixed circuit connection. Star-triangle transformation and vice versa. Wheatstone bridge. Applications in Medical Instruments. Voltage divider. Current divider. Maximum transfer power. Electrical circuits solutions. Cramer rule. Superposition theorem. Solving circuit with successive voltage and current source transformations. Thevenin theorem. Norton's theorem. Milman theorem. Compensation theorem. Reciprocity theorem. Node-voltage mathod and currents loops. Capacity, capacitors, calculation of various capacitive devices. Wiring capacitors (series, parallel, mixed, star-triangle transformation). Capacitance meter wiring operation principles.

Electrical Circuits with Applications in Biomedical Technology

Direct and alternate quantities. Mean value and root mean square of alternate quantities. Sinusoidal alternate quantities and their characteristics. Relationship between current and voltage in a capacitor and coil. Self-induction and capacitance resistance. Voltage and current in simple R-L, R-C, R-L-C circuits. Analysis of circuits using complex numbers. Theorems for sources transformation, voltage and current division. Maximum Power Transfer, star-triangle transformation. Active, Reactive, Apparent and Complex Power. Power triangle and power factor. Applications in circuits. Symmetric circuits. Transformers and principles of operation. Generators and motors, machines of direct current, single phase and step motors. Exercises and applications.

General Physics

Mechanics: Newton's law relating to the movement of bodies. Reference system. Laws of conservation of energy, momentum, angular momentum. Forces which follow the inverse square law. Waves: Oscillations - types and propagation of waves. Properties of waves. Energy - Intensity. Standing waves. Coefficients of reflection and transmission of waves. Interference. Doppler effect.

Acoustics: Propagation of acoustic waves. Acoustic pressure. Standing acoustic waves. Acoustic pipes. Thermodynamics and fluid dynamics: Laws of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic cycles - graphs. Static and dynamic pressure. Types of flow. Bernoulli equations - RE number. Loss of pressure in pipes. Electromagnetism: Electrostatics: charges and fields, electric potential, electric fields of wires, electrical current, electrical fields in matter. Magnetism: magnetic field, magnetic fields in matter.

Hospital Electromechanical Habitation

General pile of the hospital, pattern areas. Habitations: Water supply, waste pipes, warming-aeration steam, antibacterial air conditioning, emergency charges, computer network, central attendance of energy manipulation, fire protection, elevators, medical gas, special surgery equipment, washing machines, incinerators, special ground networks.

Hospital Organization and Operation

1. Structure and function of the individual components of the Hospital.
- The Historical roots of Medicine, of Medical Technology and of the Hospital.
- The Outpatient Department.
- The Accident and Emergency Department (ED).
- The in vitro Diagnostic Laboratories (Biochemistry, Haematology, Microbiology, Immunology etc.) and the Blood-Bank.
- The Medical Imaging Department (classical & digital Radiology, Interventional Radiology), Computed Tomography (CT), Bone densitometry systems.
- Nuclear Medicine (Gamma-Camera, SPECT, PET etc.).
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
- Hybrid Systems (PET-CT, PET-MRI)
- Ultrasound Imaging & Doppler.
- Medical Imaging Units' Design.
- Radiotherapy.
- Surgery.
- Intensive Care Units (ICU), Coronary Care Units (CCU), Neonatal ICU.
- The general Wards: Organization and Function.
- Rehabilitation Units: Operational Planning and Infrastructure.

2. The Medical Records and the Information Systems in Hospital (The function of Medical Records, Classification and incident management, HIS, LIS, AIMS, RIS-PACs etc., Hospital compensation by the Insurances).

3. Equipment, Supplies and Consumables management in the Hospital.

4. The environmental protection of the modern Hospital.
- The Natural and the artificial population exposure to Ionizing Radiation.
- The Radiation Protection calculations for Radiology and Medical Radioisotopes Laboratories.
- Environmental protection in the Hospital by air pollutants and measuring Devices.
- Chemical pollution control in hazardous Departments (Surgery, Sterilization etc.).
- Noise Measurements and low-noise or sound-proof rooms.
- Dangerous and/or contaminated Biological solid-waste and waste-water collection, management and disposing of Policies.
- Infection control in the Hospital.
- Electrical Safety in the Hospital.

Introduction to Electronics

Characteristic curves I-V. P-N diodes and their applications. Characteristic voltage-current curves of P-N diodes. Load curve. Diodes as switches, half-wave and full-wave rectifiers. Rectification with filtering. Zener diodes. Application to voltage stabilization circuits. Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT). Structure and function of NPN and PNP transistors. CB, CE and CC bias circuits. Applications of transistors: relation between IC, IB and IE currents. Input-output characteristic curves of BJT. Transistors as switches, oscillators and amplifiers. Junction Field Effect Transistor: structure and principles of operation. I-V curves. CS, CD & CG bias circuits. Applications. Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs): structure and principles of operation. I-V curves.

Ionizing Radiations: Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Therapy systems

1. Interactions of radiations with matter. Radiation Dosimetry. Production of x-rays, x-ray tubes. Radiation Detectors (energy integration), direct and indirect detection: fluorescence screens, scintillators, storage phosphors, photoconductors, semiconductor detectors. Imaging Detectors: Flat panel active matrix imagers (amorphous silicon) for Digital Radiography, Fluoroscopy and Mammography, Computed Radiography (CR) detectors and cassettes, CCD and CMOS based sensors, Image Intensifiers etc. High voltage generators. Thermal ratings. Image Quality characteristics. General description of diagnostic x-ray machines. TV chains and display units. Systems for special diagnostic techniques (Mammography, Bone densitometry, Digital Tomosynthesis). X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) systems. Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiology. Quality control protocols in Diagnostic Radiology. 2. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry under Radiation Therapy conditions. Radiation Therapy systems with photons and particles (Electron linear accelerators, protons etc). Quality Control and Radiation Protection in Radiation Therapy.

Ionizing Radiations: Nuclear Medicine Systems

Introduction in Nuclear Physics. Radioactivity. Production of radioactive isotopes. Radiopharmaceuticals. Radiation Detectors (Photon Counters) scintillator photomultiplier. Collimators. Electronic signal shaping, pulse height analyzer. Imaging Systems types. Gamma camera systems and single photon emission computed tomography radiation-c (SPECT). Annihilation, Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Specialized imaging and measuring systems (camera with analog counter, camera with solid state detectors, whole body counters, RIA-IRMA etc.). Image Quality Metrics in Nuclear Medicine. Dosimetry and Radiation Protection in Nuclear Medicine. Quality control protocols in Nuclear Medicine.

Maintenance and Quality Assurance of Medical Equipment

Terminology, Diagnostic systems. Classification of devices and their components. Classification of faults. Methods of quality assurance, readiness and reliability. ISO Systems. Periodic inspections and preventive maintenance. Routine Corrective and General Maintenance. Calibration and control of measuring instruments and devices. Safety checks of Medical Equipment. Diagnostic faults. Readiness and Maintenance of Biomedical Equipment. Organization of Maintenance Workshop and spare parts stock. Application examples.

Mathematics

Linear algebra - Analytical Geometry: Matrices. Eigenvalues. Eigenvectors. Linear systems. Elements of analytical geometry. Functions of one real variable. Derivatives: Definition. Side derivatives. Geometrical meaning. Higher-order derivatives. Differentials: theorems and formulae. Indefinite integrals: Definition. Integration rules. Approximate calculation of integral. Definite integral. Introduction to complex functions: complex numbers. Root. Logarithm. Complex powers. Complex functions. Real number series and power series. Solution of equations and systems with iterative methods.

Medical Electronics

The course aims to provide a thorough presentation of issues which are of great importance in biomedical devices, such as amplification in low signal to noise ratio environments and protection from electromagnetic interference. Furthermore, the fundamentals of telecommunication electronics are described. Such knowledge is the basis for understanding corresponding medical applications. It also introduces the student to the operation of discrete power electronic components, as well as to the structure and operation of power supply devices, focusing on biomedical devices.

Medical Image Processing

Image formation, digitization, compression and coding. Mathematical methods in image processing, transforms,, image quality, image enhancement , restoration, segmentation, tomographic reconstruction, 3-dimensional imaging. Multilevel image reformation, image compression, medical image feature extraction, pattern recognition, classification.

Medical Informatics

Introduction, Coding of medical terms and medical information recording systems, Databases (Database Management Systems, Relational Databases, Tables, Relations between tables, Constraints, Normalization, Structured Query Language - SQL), Standards for storing medical and laboratory data (HL7, DICOM). Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS), Electronic health record. Laboratory and hospital information systems. Security and international standards for medical information systems. Clinical decision support systems. Experts systems - artificial intelligence for biomedical technology.

Medical Physics

Forces-Moments-Accelerations in the human body, Physics of the skeleton (bones, bone additives, lubricate joints, bone mass measurements). Temperature in Medicine (scales, diathermy, cryosurgery). Energy inside the human body (measuring units, food, metabolism). Pressure (intracranial, intraocular, blood, atmospheric pressure, oxygen exchange, hyperbaric oxygen chamber). Physics of the cardiovascular system. Sound in Medicine (stethoscope, audiogram, Korotkoff sounds, ultrasound, lithotripsy). Electricity in the human body. Electrical tissue properties. Piezoelectricity in human body and sensors. Elements of Quantum Physics. Quantum tunneling, electron microscopy. Black-Body Theory, Radiometry in Medicine. Non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation and the human body. Light-optics in Medicine (frequencies, fluorescence, optical spectroscopy, microscopy, eye). Nuclear magnetic Resonance. Superconductivity. Application to Imaging. Ionizing radiation: radioactivity (radioactivity law, isotope production for medical applications: Nuclear reactor, Cyclotron), internal-external contamination, precautions. Production of X-rays, ionizing radiation interactions with matter, applications. Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Nanotechnology in Medicine.

Medical Signal Processing

Signal digitization, Systems and Signals: discrete time signals, signal properties. Convolution, correlation. Signal processing in the frequency domain: discrete fourier transform, digital filtering in the frequency domain, wavelet transforms,. Time-domain signal processing: FIR and IIR digital filters, transfer function, z-transform, digital filter structures (Direct form I, II, cascade, and parallel), design of digital filters. Applications in EEG, ECG, EMG, etc.

Methodology of Design and Construction of Biomedical Devices

Theoretical confrontation from a practical standpoint of basic electrical and electronic components. Elaboration of a study on a particular device, containing theoretical research of the phenomenon the device detects, electronic design and layout, technical description, the PCB design that will be constructed, and the technical drawing of the box. Construction of the device, based on the study. Testing, and delivery of the device in full and safe operation, within its box and accompanied by the user and maintenance manual.

Microprocessor based Medical Instrumentation

Microprocessors architecture. Machine language and symbolic programming language. Communication protocols. Design of systems using microcontrollers. Robotics and applications. Microprocessors and peripherals, commands, memories, interfaces. Multiprocessors. Functions of medical instruments with microprocessors. Applications with emphasis in the use of microprocessors (hardware-software) in biomedical engineering.

Microprocessors - Programmable Digital Systems

Microprocessor architecture. Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU). Assembly programming language. Communications systems (buses), basic concepts and design principles, bus types, Designing systems based on microprocessors. System Bus, Front Side Bus, PCI channels, compact PCI channels, PCMCIA channels, USB 1.0 and 2.0 channels, 1394-firewire channels, AGP channels. Systems design with microprocessors. FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays), embedded systems, biomedical applications.

Nanotechnology and Applications in Medicine and Biology

Atomic and molecular nanotechnology. Nanosystems and molecular forces and fields. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics and small system mechanics. Quantum phenomena and metaptosis. Molecular structural forces. Nanoparticle types; carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, polymer nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, dedrimers. Nanomaterials and nanostructures. Application of nanoparticles in targeted drug delivery and thermal or light transfer in circuits. Therapeutic applications, light focus in nanoshells, nanoparticles activation with X-rays and magnetic fields, magnetic hyperthermia with nanoparticles. Applications in Medical Imaging. Nanorobots and nanomachines. Nanoelectronics applications in Medicine.

Non-Ionizing Radiations: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasonography, Optical Imaging Systems

1. Magnetization of elementary particles. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques: field gradients, pulse sequences, contrast agents. Image Reconstruction in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. MRI Imaging systems: superconductive magnets, permanent magnets, radiofrequency coils, gradient coils etc. Image quality in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

2. Ultrasound interactions in biological tissues. Piezoelectric effect and transducers. Ultrasound transducers with mechanical and electronic steering. Doppler effect, color blood flow. Ultrasound instrumentation. Image quality in Ultrasound imaging.

3. Optical imaging and tomography. New developments and advanced subjects in molecular imaging, signal perception theory and psychophysics.

Optoelectronics and Medical Lasers

Introduction to the interactions of light with matter. Photoelectric effect. Photoconductivity. Light detectors. Display Devices: LED optics, liquid crystals (operating principles and applications). Photodiodes & phototransistor. Fiber Optics: principles and applications in medical technology. Lasers: principles of operation, optical cavities, applications in medicine. Special issues on photometry. Acquisition and image enhancement.

Organization, Management, and Marketing for Engineers

Principles of management, organization, and marketing. Classical and modern theories of management. Strategic management and strategic planning. Analysis SWOT. Economic principles. Evaluation indices and quality control. Risk management. Management, organization, and marketing applications in the health industry and health services.

Probabilities and Biostatistics

The concept of probability. Independence. Total probability. Bayes formula. Classical and Bayesian statistics. Random variables - discrete and continuous. Probability density function (pdf). Special cases of pdfs. Clinical tests. Medical data sampling. Categorical and quantitative data. Bias, reliability, measurement errors. Reliability measures for categorical data. Cohran's Q-test and k-statistic. Relative risk, odds probabilities ratio. Estimation. Analysis and assessment of survival data. Hypotheses testing. General Linear Model. Regression analysis. Generalized linear models. Dose-Response models. Hypotheses testing for categorical data.

Project Management

The course is an introduction to: Technical and budgeting feasibility studies; theory and example applications, Public tenders; virtual procurement and tendering, Project Management; basic principles and fundamentals of Financial Management, Medical Equipment Regulation; national and international directives, competition issues and regulations.

Technology of Material, Biomaterials and Prosthetics

Introduction to material science: Metals and alloys, Crystal structure, microstructure, mechanical properties, Plastics, Polymers, Ceramics. Materials based on carbon. Mechanical and physical properties. Mechanisms of strengthening - Fatigue . Interaction with environment - degradation of materials. Biomaterials: Introduction- Definitions. Choosing biomaterials, compatibility, immune response, sterilization. Immunological reactions. Biomaterials marketing. Laboratory equipment for measurements, checks, assessment of materials/biomaterials/medical equipment. Biological safety of biomaterials. Materials' biocompatibility analysis. Artificial limbs: Review of technical mechanics, anatomy and physiology. Statics, stresses, kinematics. Combining anatomy engineering. Stress, statics review. Prosthetic limbs, wheel chairs, rehabilitation and orthotic equipment. Orthopedic laboratory. Artificial organs.

Telemedicine and Teleinformatics

Introduction. Basic elements of Teleinformatics. Physical layer. Modulation techniques. Computer networks. Local and wide-area networks (LANs and WANs). Internetworking. Applications of telemedicine in counseling and diagnosis, home care, surgery, education. Efficiency and acceptance of telemedicine applications. Methodology telemedicine applications.

Technical Mechanics

Mechanical equilibrium in plane and space, object equilibrium, systems equilibrium, kinetic friction, static friction, center of gravity, momentums, simple and combined stresses, Hooke's law, tensile, compression, laddering, simple and combined bending, torsion, elastic theory, uniaxial and biaxial stress, Mohr circle, failure theory, dynamic stress, Wohler and Smith diagrams, Technical applications.

Technical English

Scanning - Reading with a purpose: Getting to know a textbook. Surveying a text: Taking notes. Comparing viewpoints: Using reference sources. Locating specific information: Using a specialist index. Biomedical Signal Processing: Comparing algorithms. Amplifiers-Filters: Describing components, function, and use. Microprocessors: Describing systems. Computer Networks and Telemedicine: reviewing applications.